Tag Archives: membrane

Video: Cara Kerja Reverse Osmosis Membrane

Pada video kali ini akan terlihat ilustrasi proses yang terjadi pada filtrasi dengan proses reverse osmosis. Penjelasan mengenai proses RO secara umum dapat dilihat hingga menit ke 2:25. Selebihnya, tayangan menjelaskan proses yang terjadi di salah satu instalasi pengolahan air di Sydney, Australia.
Mudah-mudahan bermanfaat!

Copyright: © Sydney Water Corporation jordan 5 cement tongue low bred 11s hare 7s jordan 5 midnight navy jordan 5 midnight navy adidas Yeezys jordan 5 midnight navy jordan 5 midnight navy jordan 11 low bred jordan 5 cement tongue

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Pengolahan Air Limbah dengan Membran

Membrane treatment merupakan salah satu teknologi yang sudah cukup lama digunakan dan memiliki aplikasi yang luas. Salah satunya adalah di dalam sistem pengolahan air limbah. Penggunaan teknologi membran di dalam pengolahan air limbah memang terdengar mahal jika dibandingkan dengan teknologi lumpur aktif. Dengan teknologi membran perlu adanya perawatan membran antara lain pembersihan dan penggantian membran secara rutin. Akan tetapi, untuk kebutuhan pengolahan selama dua puluh tahun serta jika terdapat kebutuhan kualitas efluen air limbah yang ketat maka biaya yang dibutuhkan pada teknologi membran sama dengan pada lumpur aktif konvensional [1]. Selain itu, teknologi membran menjadi pilihan yang lebih baik bagi instalasi yang memiliki keterbatasan lahan serta daerah dengan biaya konstruksi yang tinggi. Pada artikel kali ini akan dibahas beberapa hal dasar tentang proses membran.

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What MBR Operator Should Know

I got this article couple of months ago from an online magazine. This is a good reference for those who are working with membrane bioreactor. The PDF version of this article can be downloaded here .

Membrane bioreactor (MBR)

  • This process is a combination of biological treatment (activated sludge) and membrane filtration (instead of a clarifier).
  • An MBR can satisfy the needs of activated sludge treatment, including biological nutrient removal, without worrying about settling issues.

Membrane

  • A thin sheet of porous material. The porous medium is configured to provide highly efficient filtration of mixed liquor.
  • The pore size on this “filter” for most MBRs is 0.04 to 0.2 ?m (microns).

 Membrane configurations

  • Membranes may be configured in several ways, including: hollow fiber (looks like spaghetti), flat plate (membrane sheets), and disk (new).
  • Fibers and plates generally hang suspended in the mixed liquor, and the air scour causes movement of the media and cleaning. Disks are semirigid and may not require as much air for cleaning.

Micron (?m)

  • 1/1,000,000 of a meter or 1/1000 of a millimeter
  • The pore size for the filters used in bacteriological analyses is 0.45 ?m. (Most membranes will prevent the passage of bacteria.)

 Pore size

  • Pore size is the average opening (pore) in the membrane. Most MBRs are in the range of ultrafiltration.
  • Ranges of relative pore sizes for filtration area include: sand filtration — 1 to 10 ?m; microfiltration — 0.1 ?m; ultrafiltration — 0.01 ?m; nanofiltration — 0.001 ?m; and reverse osmosis — 0.0001 ?m.

 Flux

  • Flux is the throughput of the membrane. It is based on rate of flow per unit of surface area, per unit time.
  • The typical range for flux rate may be 370 to 775 L/m2•d (9 to 19 gal/ft2•d). The effective surface area varies based on the membrane configuration

 Transmembrane pressure (TMP)

  • TMP expresses the pressure differential between the outside and inside of the membrane, similar to head loss.
  • A rise in TMP indicates an increase in fouling (clogging pores) or an increase in flux rate (throughput).

 Basics of operation

  • To ensure best operation of the MBR system, some unique operations will be needed, including: using 1- to 3-mm fine screening; maintaining 8- to 20-day sludge age; operating at high mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations (8000 to 15,000 mg/L); and sustaining a high return activated sludge (RAS) flow, about 2 to 4 Q.
  • Good screening will remove materials that could harm the membranes.
  • Membrane filtration enables the use of higher sludge age and MLSS needed for nutrient reduction without the risk of high effluent total suspended solids.
  • The membrane tank is, in effect, a dead end for solids; therefore, the RAS rate will be higher than for a normal activated sludge process.

 Membrane cleaning

  • Just as filters must be backwashed to remove solids from the media, membranes require similar actions, including air scour, resting mode (or back-pulse), clean-in-place, and chemical cleaning.
  • All membranes require one or more of the cleaning methods. Cleaning methods vary with configuration and membrane type.

 Typical results

  • BOD: <2 mg/LTSS: <0.5 mg/L
  • NH3–N: <0.5 mg/L
  • TN: <3 mg/L
  • TP: <0.05 mg/L
  • Turbidity: <0.2 NTU
  • Fecal coliform: <10 CFU per 100 mL
  • Note that reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus will depend on proper operation of specific nutrient removal processes.Even though most membranes will filter out fecal coliform, disinfection is required by regulatory authorities.

Motive force

  • Some MBR systems will require a reduction in the downstream pressure to achieve the necessary flux rate. This force can be from pump suction, vacuum assist, or gravity.
  • MBR systems may require pumps, vacuum systems, or gravity to force the liquid to flow through the tiny pores. The amount of force needed will vary with configuration and system type.

 Associated operational issues and limitations

  • Operators should consider the following issues when working with MBRs: stormwater flow control, membrane monitoring and cleaning, and equipment maintenance.
  • High flows will require flow leveling, equalization, or a scalping operation
  • Membranes will age and require various cleaning methods and eventual replacement
  • An MBR’s support systems will require additional monitoring and maintenance.
Source: www.wef.org/publications/page_wet.aspx?id=9095&page=ca&section=Operator%20Essentials adidas Yeezy 750 Boost low bred 11s jordan 13 low bred hare 7s low bred 13s

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Membrane Bioreactor

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) merupakan suatu sistem pengolahan air limbah yang mengaplikasikan penggunaan membran yang terendam di dalam bioreaktor. Proses yang terjadi di dalam bioreaktor mirip dengan lumpur aktif konvensional (conventional activated sludge, CAS), di mana zat organic di dalam air limbah akan didegradasi secara biologis oleh mikroorganisme aerob kemudian terjadi pemisahan solid (lumpur). Bedanya, pada MBR proses pemisahan solid dilakukan menggunakan membran sementara pada CAS pemisahan solid dilakukan secara gravitasi di dalam tangki pengendap. Perbandingan antara MBR dengan CAS  dapat dilihat pada gambar berikut:

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